An introduction to the organelle the mitochondrion

They are far fewer than the minimum of 32 required to translate nucleus-derived mRNA. The mitochondrion is different from most other organelles because it has its own circular DNA similar to the DNA of prokaryotes and reproduces independently of the cell in which it is found; an apparent case of endosymbiosis.

Convert organic materials into cellular energy in the form of ATP, hence acts as power house of the cell. The second path of mitochondrial modification in anaerobic eukaryotes results in conversion into mitosomes. The head is about 10 nm in diameter. Precursors of the acetyl group are transported from the cell cytoplasm into the matrix via some of the proteins in the inner membrane.

One characteristic shared by most hydrogenosomes and all mitosomes is the absence of the cristae that give classical mitochondria their instantly recognizable morphology under the electron microscope.

Infolding of the cristae dramatically increases the surface area available for hosting the enzymes responsible for cellular respiration.

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This secondary modification of the organelle has occurred independently many times and has followed at least two different paths. Genes shown inside the map are transcribed more Together, the various compartments of a mitochondrion are able to work in An introduction to the organelle the mitochondrion to generate ATP in a complex multi-step process.

Those enzymes generating short- to medium-sized fragments were used to digest the Blastocystis DNA. Subtyping of Blastocystis sp. The number of mitochondria per cell is different in different cell types. Notice the presence of a large inverted repeat in Figure Apoptotic cells - altered mitochondrial transmembrane potential causes dye to remain in the cytoplasm in monomer form, green fluorescence.

Genes encoding translational functions take up about half the chloroplast genome and include those encoding the proteins and RNA types necessary for translation in the organelle. Mitochondria are also required for cholesterol metabolism, for estrogen and testosterone synthesis, for neurotransmitter metabolism, and for free radical production and detoxification.

These organelles occur in a number of unrelated eukaryotic lineages. Mitochondria are similar to plant chloroplasts in that both organelles are able to produce energy and metabolites that are required by the host cell.

Its structure is highly complex, including all of the complexes of the electron transport system, the ATP synthetase complex, and transport proteins. Mitochondrion is a double membranous structure and can be described as a large wrinkled bag packed inside the smaller smooth bag.

Because of the two membranes there are five distinct compartments within the mitochondrion. Consequently, the only mitochondria the new organism usually gets are from the egg its mother provided.

Here is your short essay on Mitochondrion Prateek Agrawal Mitochondria singular: This process is called aerobic respiration and is the reason animals breathe oxygen.

Because of the folds of the cristae, no part of the matrix is far from the inner membrane. Like mitochondria, chloroplasts also contain their own DNA and are able to grow and reproduce independently within the cell.

Each map is shown as two concentric circles corresponding to the two strands of the DNA helix. Its stalk the F0 portion penetrates the lipid bilayer of the inner membrane and is capable of catalyzing the transport of protons.

Movements of the organelles appear to be linked in some way to the microtubules present in the cell, and are probably transported along the network with motor proteins. Genocopies are diseases that are caused by the same mutation but which may not look the same clinically.

The synteny between the two MLO genomes is complete, with no evidence of rearrangements having occurred since the divergence of subtypes 1 and 4, represented by Blastocystis sp. The wrinkles, or folds, are organized into lamillae layerscalled the cristae singlular: In unspecialized cells they are randomly distributed throughout the cytoplasm but usually they are abundant in cells and parts of the cells that are associated with active processes.

Problems with mitochondrial function, however, may only affect certain tissues as a result of factors occurring during development and growth that we do not yet understand. The larger surface area makes room for many more of the above-named structures than if the inner membrane were shaped like the outer membrane.

Thus, from their distribution alone one would suspect that they are involved in energy production. The genes present on this genome are almost exclusively involved in either electron transport or translation.


It is characterized by bilaterally symmetrical MRI abnormalities in the brain stem, cerebellum, and basal ganglia, and often accompanied by elevated lactic acid levels in the blood or cerebrospinal fluid. The number of mitochondria present in a cell depends upon the metabolic requirements of that cell, and may range from a single large mitochondrion to thousands of the organelles.

Less understood regions include the introns, unassigned reading frames, and spacer DNA.


Mitochondria are generally oblong organelles, which range in size between 1 and 10 micrometers in length, and occur in numbers that directly correlate with the cell's level of metabolic activity.INTRODUCTION TO THE CELL An organelle is a cell component that • Mitochondrion • Vesicle • Chloroplast and o Central vacuole.

Introduction. The acquisition of the mitochondrion was a crucial step, perhaps even the decisive event, in the evolution of the eukaryotic cell from an archaeal ancestor (Martin and Müller ; Embley and Martin ).It is generally accepted that this organelle is derived from a symbiotic alpha-proteobacterium that over time became so integrated into the host cell that almost all its.

We will focus, in particular, on the mitochondrion, the organelle that powers the cell. In this context, we will look at the processes of cell metabolism.

Finally, we will examine the F1F0 ATP synthase, the molecular machine that is responsible for the synthesis of most of. The mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a double-membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic organisms. Some cells in some multicellular organisms may, however, lack them (for example, mature mammalian red blood cells).

This is a colored transmission electron micrograph (TEM) of a mitochondrion. Mitochondria are a type of organelle found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells.


A). Morphology and organelle interactions.

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B). The fusion fission cycle of mitochondria.

An introduction to the organelle the mitochondrion
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